Lithium-ion (Li-ion)

History #

The development of lithium-ion batteries began in the 1970s and 1980s, when scientists at the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge began researching the potential of lithium-ion technology. The first commercial lithium-ion battery was developed in 1991 by Sony and Asahi Kasei. Since then, lithium-ion batteries have become the most popular type of rechargeable battery, due to their high energy density, low self-discharge rate, and long cycle life.

Typical Use #

Lithium-ion batteries are used in a wide variety of applications, including consumer electronics, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems. They are also used in medical devices, such as pacemakers, and in military and aerospace applications.

In consumer electronics, lithium-ion batteries are used in laptops, tablets, smartphones, digital cameras, and other portable electronic devices. They are also used in electric vehicles, such as electric cars, electric bicycles, and electric scooters.

In energy storage systems, lithium-ion batteries are used to store energy generated from renewable sources, such as solar and wind. They are also used in grid-scale energy storage systems, which are used to store energy for later use.

Design #

Lithium-ion batteries are composed of three main components: the anode, the cathode, and the electrolyte. The anode is typically made of graphite, while the cathode is typically made of a lithium-containing compound, such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2). The electrolyte is typically a liquid or gel-like material, such as a lithium salt in an organic solvent.

The design of lithium-ion batteries is highly customizable, and can be tailored to meet specific performance requirements. For example, the type of anode and cathode materials used can be changed to increase the energy density of the battery, or to improve its safety characteristics. The electrolyte can also be modified to improve the battery’s performance in extreme temperatures.

Lithium-ion batteries are also designed with safety features, such as temperature sensors, current sensors, and voltage sensors. These features help to protect the battery from overcharging and over-discharging, which can lead to thermal runaway and fire.